Week 10: Experiential Learning and Study Abroad

May 12, 2008
Key Concept
Educational models
Experiential learning
Study Abroad


Seminar Discussion: How to study abroad and not fail.

What is experiential learning? How does it differ to the learning you do now?

What are some of the differences in tertiary education across the world? What is the impact of globalisation on education? What are some responses – positive and negative?

What can you do to get the most out of your Study Abroad experience?



Find material online or otherwise which tells you about the host institution you will be spending your Study Abroad time at. How many students? Degree structure? Facilities for studies? Social life and clubs? Campus life? Medical and travel facilities? Student Services and counseling?


Read ONE of the following:

Montrose, Lynne. “International Study and Experiential Learning: The Academic Context.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad VIII (2002): 1-15.


Salmi, Jamil. ‘Tertiary Education in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Opportunities.’ In LCSHD Paper Series, ed. Human Development Department. The World Bank; Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office. 2000. (accessed 25 October, 2006).


Stier, Jonas, “Internationalisation, Ethnic Diversity and the Acquisition of Intercultural Competencies”, Intercultural Education, Vol. 14: 1 (2003): 77-91.


Week 9: Tradition, Hierarchy and Respect

May 5, 2008
Key Concepts:

• Taboos
• Social etiquette
• Respect
• Religion
Seminar Discussion: Respect and taboos: respecting taboos?
How do social norms, morality, ethics and taboos differ across the globe?
What should we be aware of when trying to negotiate social situations in a different cultural context?
How far should we go to avoid giving offence?
What role does religion play in defining taboos, ethics, morality and social norms?

Essential Reading:

Sacks, Jonathan. “The Dignity of Difference: How to Avoid a Clash of Civilizations.” Orbis 46, no. 4 (2002): 601-09.

Charles, Larry (dir). Borat!: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, 2006. (Excerpts will be shown in class).

Week 8: Global Travel in the Post 9-11 World

April 28, 2008


Global Travel



How important are concerns about international security and the threat of terrorism to your travel preparations?

What is a cosmopolitan citizen- Are you ‘cosmopolitan’? Is the post 9-11 travel environment having negative effects on cosmopolitanism?



Molz, Jennie Germann. “Getting A “Flexible Eye”: Round-the-World Travel and Scales of Cosmopolitan Citizenship.” Citizenship Studies 9, no. 5 (2005): 517-31.

The Peking Duck.  ‘America’s unfair post-911 policy on visas to the US’. 2 April 2004. http://pekingduck.org/archives/001110.php


Tuakli-Wosornu,T. ‘African insight: the New Africans called Afropolitans’. 2 October 2007. http://maizebreak.com/opinion/article/africa_insight_the_new_africans_called_afropolitans/

Reading List and Essay Questions

April 28, 2008

The suggested reading list is meant to help guide you to find useful readings. You CAN go further than these. You may want to take a particular focus for your essay and so you will need to fine tune your readings – by finding others and discarding some in the list below.

For a good essay at this level of university, you should be reading at least 20 sources (primary and secondary) for the 2000 word research essay.




1. To what extent is ‘identity’ socially constructed? Use case studies and examples from your readings and any other sources to illustrate your answer.



Week 1, 3, 5 and 6 readings and

Beck, Ulrich. “The Truth of Others: A Cosmopolitan Approach.” Common Knowledge 10, no. 3 (2004): 430-49.

Binnie, Jon. The Globalization of Sexuality. London: Sage Publications, 2004.

boyd, danah. “None of This Is Real: Identity and Participation in Friendster.” 1-24: University of California, Berkley, 2006.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Cruz-Malavé, Arnaldo, and Martin F. Manalansan IV, eds. Queer Globalizations: Citizenship and the Afterlife of Colonialism. New York: New York University Press, 2002.

Hage, G. ‘A not so multi-sited ethnography of a not so imagined community’, Anthropological Theory,Vol 5(4) 463-475.

Hannerz, Ulf. Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places: Routledge, 1996.

Mathews, Gordon. “On the Meanings of Culture.” In Global Culture/Individual Identity: Searching for Home in the Cultural Supermarket, edited by Gordon Mathews, 1-29. London: Routledge, 2000.

Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women. “Gender Mainstreaming: An Overview.” United Nations, 2002, 1-11.

Petchesky, Rosalind P. “Sexual Rights: Inventing a Concept, Mapping an International Practice.” In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Power, edited by Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa and Peter Aggleton, 81-103. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Riley, Denise. “Am I That Name?”: Feminism and the Category Of “Women” In History: Macmillan, 1988.

Simon, Bernd. Identity in Modern Society: A Social Psychological Perspective. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004, 1-17.

Song, Miri. Choosing ethnic identity, Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA, USA : Polity Press, 2003.

Taylor, Tracy, “Cultural Diversity and Leisure: Experiences of Women in Australia”, Society and Leisure, 24: no.2, 2001, 535-555.

Tehranian, Majid. “Cultural Security and Global Governance: International migration And Negotiations of Identity.” In Worlds on the Move: Globalization, Migration, and Cultural Security, edited by Jonathan Friedman and Shalini Randeria, 3-22. London: I.B. Taurus, 2004.

Yeoh, Brenda S.A., Michael W. Charney, Tong Chee Kiong. (eds), Approaching transnationalisms : studies on transnational societies, multicultural contacts, and imaginings of home, Boston : Kluwer Academic, 2003.

Young, Crawford (ed), The accommodation of cultural diversity : case studies, Basingstoke : Macmillan Press in association with UNRISD, 1999.


2. To what extent does a ‘good global citizen’ have to be a ‘cosmopolitan’? Use case studies and examples from your readings to illustrate your answer.



Week 1, 3 and 8 readings and

Beck, Ulrich. “The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies”, Theory, culture & society, 2002; 19;17.

Beck, Ulrich. “The Truth of Others: A Cosmopolitan Approach.” Common Knowledge 10, no. 3 (2004): 430-49.

Bowden, Brett. “The Perils of Global Citizenship”, Citizenship studies, Volume 7, Issue 3 September 2003, pp. 349 – 362.

Calhoun, Craig. “The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travelers: Toward a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism”, The South Atlantic Quarterly 101:4 Fall 2002.

Carter, April. The political theory of global citizenship. New York : Routledge, 2001.

Chandler, David. “New Rights for Old? Cosmopolitan Citizenship and the Critique of State Sovereignty”, Political Studies, 2003, 51 (2), 332–349.

Cheah, Pheng and Bruce Robbins(eds.).Cosmopolitics : thinking and feeling beyond the nation Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

Dower, Nigel. “The Idea of Global Citizenship – A Sympathetic Assessment”, Global Society; October 2000; Volume 14 No. 4 pp.553 – 567. [http://saq.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/101/4/869.pdf]

Hutchings, Kimberly and Roland Dannreuther (eds). Cosmopolitan citizenship. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Mignolo Walter D. “The Many Faces of Cosmo-polis: Border Thinking and Critical Cosmopolitanism”, Public Culture 12(3): 721-748 (2000).

O’Byrne, Darren J. The dimensions of global citizenship : political identity beyond the nation-state. Portland, OR : Frank Cass, 2003.

Parekh, Bhikhu. “Cosmopolitanism and global citizenship” Review of International Studies (2003), 29: 3-17

Prakash, Aseem and Jeffrey A. Hart (eds.). Globalization and governance. London : Routledge, 1999.

Turner, Bryan S. “Cosmopolitan Virtue, Globalization and Patriotism” Theory, culture & society, 2002; 19; 45.

Tan, Kok-Chor, Justice without borders : cosmopolitanism, nationalism, and patriotism New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.


3. To what extent can we really ‘know’ another culture? Use case studies and examples from your readings to illustrate your answer.



Week 6 Readings and

Anderson, Kay. “Thinking “Postnationally”: Dialogue across Multicultural, Indigenous, and Settler Spaces.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90, no. 2 (2000): 381-91.

Bery, Ashok and Patricia Murray, Comparing postcolonial literatures : dislocations, New York : Palgrave, 2000.

Collins, Felicity, and Therese Davis. “Lost, Stolen and Found in Rabbit-Proof Fence.” In Australian Cinema after Mabo, 133-51. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Gikandi, Simon. “Globalization and the Claims of Postcoloniality.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 100, no. 3 (2001): 627-58.

Hannerz, Ulf. Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places: Routledge, 1996, 111-126.

Hymes, Dell, Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality : toward an understanding of voice, London ; Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis, 1995.

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen. “I Still Call Australia Home: Indigenous Belonging and Place in a White Postcolonizing Society.” In Uprootings/Regroundings: Questions of Home and Migration, edited by Sara Ahmed, Claudia Castañeda, Anne-Marie Fortier and Mimi Sheller, 23-40. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

Reif- Hulser, Monika, Borderlands: Negotiating Boundaries in Post-Colonial Writing, Amsterdam : Rodopi, 1999.

Said, Edward W. Culture and imperialism, New York : Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1993.

Said, Edward. “Resistance, Opposition and Representation.” In The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, edited by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin, 95-98. London: Routledge, 2006.

Thieme John, The Arnold anthology of post-Colonial literatures in English, London ; New York : Arnold, 1996.



4. When visiting another culture, their traditions and culture should always be respected. Discuss.



Week 4 and 9 Readings and

Abu-Lughod, Lila. “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others.” American Anthropologist 104, no. 3 (2002): 783-90.

Arthur, Linda B. “Religion, Dress and the Body.” In Religion, Dress and the Body, edited by Linda B. Arthur, 1-8. Oxford: Berg, 1999.

Arthur, Linda B. Religion, Dress and the Body, Oxford: Berg, 1999.

Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of Culture. Houghton Mifflin Books, 1989.

Beyer, Peter. “Social Forms of Religion and Religions in Contemporary Global Society.” In Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, edited by Michele Dillon, 45-60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Coleman, Simon, and Peter Collins, eds. Religion, Identity, and Change : Perspectives on Global Transformations. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004.

Inglehart, R and WE Baker .“Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values”, American Sociological Review, February 2000, 65, 19-51.

Kurtz, Lester. Gods in the Global Village: The World’s Religions in Sociological Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1995.

Panitch, Leo, and Colin Leys, eds. Fighting Identities: Race, Religion & Ethno-Nationalism. London: Merlin, 2002.

Rothkrug, Lionel. Death, Trust and Society: Mapping Religion and Culture, Berkeley, Calif. : North Atlantic Books, 2006.

Turiel E. and C. Wainryb, “Concepts of freedoms and rights in a traditional, hierarchically organized society”, British journal of developmental psychology, 1998, vol. 16 (3), pp. 375-395.

Weirz, Rose. “Women and Their Hair: Seeking Power through Resistance and Accommodation.” Gender and Society 15, no. 5 (2001): 667-86.


5. Sport is the only global and universal activity we have. Discuss.



Week 7 readings and

Associated Press. ‘Pride and politics mix after Rugby World Cup win over England’ in International Herald Tribune. 21 October 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/21/sports/AF-SPT-RUGU-WCup-South-Africa-Reax.php

Back, L., T. Crabbe and J. Solomos, The Changing Face of Football: Racism, Identity and Multiculture in the English Game, Oxford: Berg, 2001.

Bairner, Alan. Sport, Nationalism, and Globalization : European and North American Perspectives Albany State University of New York Press, 2001.

Brown, A. Fanatics! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football, London: Routledge, 1998.

Carrington, Ben. “Cosmopolitan Olympism, Humanism and the Spectacle of ‘Race’.” In Post-Olympism? Questioning Sport in the Twenty-First Century, edited by John Bale and Mette Krogh Christensen, 81-96. Oxford: Berg, 2004.

Daucey H. and G. Hare (eds), France and the 1998 World Cup: the National Impact of a World Sporting Event, London: Frank Cass, 1999.

Fitzclarence, Lindsay, and Christopher Hickey. “Real Footballers Don’t Eat Quiche: Old Narratives in New Times.” Men and Masculinities 4, no. 2 (2001): 118-39.

Giardina, M. “Bend[ing] it like Beckham: Stylish Hybridity in Popular British Culture”, in Sporting Pedagogies: Performing Culture and Identity in the Global Arena, New York: Peter Lang, 2005.

Giulianotti, R. Football: A Sociology of the Global Game, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.

Maguire, J. Global Sport: Identities, Societies, Civilizations, Cambrdige: Polity Press, 1999.

Mcdonald, M. “Imagining Benevolence, Masculinity and Nation: Tragedy, Sport and the Transnational Marketplace” in M. Silk, D. Andrews and C. L. Cole (eds), Sport and Corporate Nationalisms, Oxford: Berg, 2005.

Miller, Toby, Geoffrey Lawrence, Jim McKay, and David Rowe. “The ‘G-Word’ Meets the ‘S-Word’.” In Globalization and Sport: Playing the World, 6-30. London: Sage, 2001.

‘Raffarin speaks against mixing politics with sport’: http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/paris/news/n214297453.shtml

Smith, A. and A. Porter (eds), Sport and National Identity in the Post-War World, London: Routledge, 2004.

Swarns, R. ‘Rich, but not comfortable, in South Africa’s black elite’ in The New York Times. 2 August 2002.http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04EFD71E3BF931A3575BC0A9649C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all



Wagg, S. (ed), Giving the Game Away: Football, Politics and Culture on Five Continents, London: Leicester University Press, 1995.






Week 7: The Global Game

April 28, 2008
Key Concepts
Group culture


Seminar Discussion: Playing the game…

Is sport the only truly universal and global activity we have?

How does playing sport shape who we are? Is it different for men and women?

How can sport have a positive impact on the individual (community, identity, wealth, personal ambition)?

How can sport have a negative impact on the individual (racism, exclusion, violence, elitism)?

Is sport defined by being ‘national’ or can it be ‘global’ too?



Giulianotti, R. 2000 ‘The Cultural Politics of Play: Ethnicity, Gender and the ‘Post-fan’ Mentality’ in Football: A Sociology of the Global Game, 146-165. Cambridge: Polity Press.


‘Raffarin speaks against mixing politics with sport’: http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/paris/news/n214297453.shtml


Associated Press. ‘Pride and politics mix after Rugby World Cup win over England’ in International Herald Tribune. 21 October 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/21/sports/AF-SPT-RUGU-WCup-South-Africa-Reax.php

Swarns, R. ‘Rich, but not comfortable, in South Africa’s black elite’ in The New York Times. 2 August 2002.http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04EFD71E3BF931A3575BC0A9649C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all


Movie: Zanzibar Soccer Queens (On sport and gender)



Week 6: “One People Divided By A Common Language”

April 13, 2008

Key Concepts:
• Cultural difference.
• Cultural language.
• Cultural context.

Essential Reading:

Thiong’o, Ngũgĩ wa. “The Language of African Literature.” In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, edited by Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman, 435-55. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.

United States Department of State. 2003. ‘Somali Bantu Refugees’ in http://www.state.gov/g/prm/rls/fs/2003/17270.htm (to be read and discussed in class)


Essential Observation Trip

Hector Peiterson Mesuem, Soweto, South Africa.


Seminar Discussion: Other voices.
How do you understand cultural difference?
What do you do when you speak the same language as someone but can’t understand each other?
What gets lost in translation?
Does cultural context matter?
How do you find it?

Week 2: The Media

March 31, 2008

Key concepts 

• News production/construction
• News and media reception
• Citizen Journalism
• Bias and censorship
• Ownership, local content and media laws.

Seminar Discussion

What is ‘news’?

How does the media shape our understanding of the world?

How significant is it?

Does the individual matter when the media is owned by big business? How can the individual make a difference?

What role are blogs playing in political debate today?

Is blogging a more reliable critical source of world news than traditional media?

Essential Reading:

Hannerz, Ulf, “Media and the World as a Single Place” in Foreign News. Exploring the World of Foreign Correspondents, The Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004, 15-38.

Kahn, Richard, and Douglas Kellner. “New Media and Internet Activism: From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to Blogging.” New Media and Society 6, no. 1 (2004): 87-95.

Seminar/Blogging Task

Zimbabwe media assignment as distributed in class.  Remember to bring your audi-visual materials to class.

Week 5: Culture and Being the ‘Other’

March 31, 2008

Week 2. Culture and being the ‘other’.

Teaching Format

Visit to the Apartheid Museum 

Key Concepts

Cultural language

Cultural identity

Cultural security


Ethnicity vs. nationalism


Seminar Discussion: Cultural language and difference.

How do we respond to difference?

What are some ways we can cope with becoming the ‘outsider’?

What is cultural context? How do we adapt to new cultural contexts?


Essential Readings:

Hall, Stuart. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora.” In Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, edited by Jonathan Rutherford, 222-37. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990.


Hoffman, Eva, Lost in translation : a life in a new language, New York : E.P. Dutton, 1989, pp99-108.

Seminar Activity

Write a 750-word blog on how the apartheid government created and managed ‘the other’.

Reflect  on your experience at the Apartheid Museum and the Hector Pieterson Museum.  Has your understanding of racism, migration, language, youth and ‘other’ changed because of the experience.  Why?

Week 4: Gender and Sexuality

March 31, 2008

Key concepts:
• Gender
• Sexuality

Seminar Discussion: Going away and getting it on.

  • How do gender and sexual roles differ across cultures?
  •  Who are our role models?
  • What are some of the issues that individual women/gay/lesbian people need to consider when they travel?
  • According to Rebecca Huntley, what are some of the pressures operating in our society on our gender and sexuality roles? What are some of the complexities and contradictions?

Essential Reading:

 South African Press Association, 2008. ‘Anger Mounts Over Miniskirt Attack’. http://www.thetimes.co.za/News/Article.aspx?id=710132. March 31 2008.

Smith, A.D. 2006. Still a long, hard road to gay rights in South Africa.


Huntley, Rebecca. “It’s Painful to Be Sexy.” In The World According to Y: Inside the New Adult Generation, 120-42: Allen & Unwin, 2006.

Miller, Neil. Out in the World: Gay and Lesbian Life from Buenos Aires to Bangkok. New York: Random House, 1992, pp144-149, 166-169, 172-175.

Week 3: Is Youth Culture Global?

March 31, 2008

Key concepts:


Youth culture

Global generation?

Seminar Discussion: Digital Generation.

What is ‘youth’? When do young people become adults in the country you are going to?

When did/do you become an adult? What did it signify?

What does global youth culture look like? What is it made of?

Is this a global generation? Digital generation? What does that mean?

How do you find youth culture? How do you access it? Will Social Networking Software (SNS) provide the answers?

Essential Reading:

boyd, danah. “Identity Production in a Networked Culture: Why Youth Heart MySpace.” American Association for the Advancement of Science. St Louis, MO, 2006. [URL: http://www.danah.org/papers/AAAS2006.html%5D

Heaven, Cara and Matthew Tubridy, ‘Global Youth Culture and Youth Identity’, Highly affected, rarely considered youth commission report into globalisation, Oxfam International. [http://iyp.oxfam.org/documents/Chapter%2011%20Global%20Youth%20Culture%20&%20Youth%20Identity.pdf]

Find out the age requirements for the country you will be studying in order to be eligible for the following:

voting in elections;

consensual sexual intercourse;


drinking alcohol;

viewing ‘adult content’;

military service.